The Iodine Papers 2 – Orthoiodosupplementation

In this paper, the authors continue their investigation and quantitative assessment of how much iodine is needed for optimal health and function of the whole body. As the title emphasises, the primary aim in this paper is to determine the ideal amount of supplemental iodine in light of the fact that it is difficult to get as much as is needed through diet alone in most of the world.

The major themes are 1) what the authors have termed iodophobia, the widespread but entirely unfounded fear of iodine, which continues to pervade in the mentality of physicians, and consequently, in that of the general population; 2) iodine needed for optimal thyroid health; and 3) iodine needed for extra thyroidal tissues. Because the effects of prolonged iodine deficiency in cells leads to cancer, and because the second-most iodine-dependent tissues are those of the mammary glands of the breasts of females, much of the discussion is concerned with cancer of the thyroid and breasts.

The conclusion is the same as in their first paper: an optimal daily amount of iodine is around 12.5 mg of which 5 mg is in the form of iodine, primarily for the thyroid gland, and 7.5 mg in the form of iodide, primarily for the breasts and other extra-thyroidal tissues.

Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body by Guy E. Abraham, MD, Jorge D. Flechas, MD, and John C. Hakala, RPh

lifespa-image-iodine-pills-bottle

Supplemental iodine for optimal health of thyroid, breasts, skin, and whole body. Long-term average daily iodine intake according to authors should be at least 12.5 mg, and provide both iodine and iodide.

The paper begins with the authors’ motivations, presented clearly in the first two paragraphs. They contrast, on the one hand, that it is known and recognised that iodine is the only element required for and in the synthesis of hormones; that these hormones are involved in embryogenesis, differentiation, cognitive development, growth, metabolism, and regulation of body temperature; that iodine is most concentrated in the thyroid; that iodine is the most deficient trace element in the world with more than one third of the world’s population known to be clearly iodine-deficient; and that low iodine is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficiency.

Whereas, on the other hand, that optimal amounts of iodine for the human body have never been evaluated nor determined; that supplementation has been considered adequate if it prevented cretinism, simple goitre, and symptoms of hypothyroidism; that it has been assumed that the role of iodine was essentially restricted to the synthesis of T3 and T4, so much so that it has become dogma; and that when thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assays became available, iodine urine testing was abandoned as irrelevant, and eventually forgotten to the point where today, most clinical doctors will go through the entire career without ever ordering a urine iodine test.

Iodophobia

The fear of iodine, which most likely has its roots in the work of Wolff and Chaikoff (1948), and which we will examine on another occasion, is present and widespread in the literature for all audiences. It is found in the textbooks used in medical schools, in professional journals, in non-technical publications that appear in health magazines, and in books written for the general public by medical professionals. The authors present a number of examples from different sources spanning this range of different kinds of publications intended for different audiences.

They seem to attribute much of the burden for the spread of iodophobia in the US, at least in the last few decades, to one individual, an endocrinologist by the name of Ridha Arem, who was a longtime editor of a professional periodical read by at least 25k endocrinologists throughout the country, and the author of the popular book The thyroid solution: A revolutionary Mind-Body program that will help you, first published in 1999 and currently in its third edition (2017).

In this book, on page 305 of the 1999 edition, Arem writes: “research has clearly established that the high dietary intake iodine content in some areas of the world has resulted in a rise in the prevalence of thyroiditis and thyroid cancer.” A single reference is given in support of this statement: a paper written by Harach & Williams, entitled Thyroid cancer and thyroiditis in the goitre region of Salta Argentina, before and after iodine prophylaxis, and published in 1995 in the journal of Clinical Endocrinology (43:701-6). In this paper, however, no high iodine intake is present or involved in any part of the study.

Harach & Williams (1995) measured urine iodine before and after introduction of iodised salt, and evaluated thyroiditis and thyroid cancer rates. Urine iodine was 9.3 +/- 1.7 mcg/g creatinine before and 110 +/- 13 mcg/g of creatinine after iodisation. There was no change at all in the rates of invasive forms of cancer, and for papillary carcinoma the numbers were 0.78/100k/year before and then 0.84/100k/year after iodisation, which they recognise as insignificant. Not only do these data not support Arem’s claims, but they are not even applicable to an evaluation of the potential effects of high iodine intake. Arem does not provide any other references.

On the same page Arem also writes: “to function normally, the thyroid requires 150 mcg/d … In the US, iodine consumption ranges between 300-700 mcg/d.” No reference is given to support this statement. And this statement is demonstrably false: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES III (1988-1994), showed that the median iodine in urine was 145 mcg/L, and that at least 15% of US women were markedly deficient, with less than 50 mcg of iodine per litre of urine.

The reason why measuring iodine in urine over 24 hours is a good way to evaluate iodine sufficiency, is because most of it is excreted. If the body’s tissues (thyroid glands, breasts, stomach lining, skin, etc) have all the iodine they need, then we would excrete close to the entirety of the iodine we consume. The greater the discrepancy between ingested and excreted iodine, the greater the deficiency. But because it is water soluble and hard to store, a long time is needed to replenish iodine stores in the tissues. Hence, for this reason, supplementation with larger doses than those needed for optimal maintenance, and extended over many years, are usually needed to restore iodine sufficiency and balance within the body’s most iodine-dependent tissues like the thyroid, breasts, and skin.

In a review paper on iodine ‘excess’ published in 2000 and included in a reference textbook used by endocrinologists in a section entitled Iodine as a pathogen, Roti & Vegenakis the authors report the decline in iodine intake in the US, stating that in 1971-74, it was found that 27.8% of people tested excreted more than 500 mcg/L, whereas in the intervening 15-20 years, this number dropped to 5.3% (1988-1994). Having taken—entirely arbitrarily—500 mcg/L as indicative of excess iodine, the authors present these figures as encouraging and positive in the prevention of iodine ‘excess’, completely ignoring the remarkable discrepancy with the observations of mainland Japanese that show both an iodine intake that is 100 times greater than the US average, and the lowest incidence of goitre and hypothyroidism: figures presented by Finley & Bogardus in 1960, and more recently also in further studies by Thomas et al. in 1983 and 1986.

Moreover, in their review, Roti & Vegenakis note that Amiodarone, a drug commonly used to treat heart arrhythmia, contains 75 mg of iodine per 200 mg tablet (note that this is mg and not mcg), and causes hypothyroidism in 25% of patients that take it. They automatically attributed this to the iodine, but do not investigate the issue further, either by looking at studies on high iodine intakes, or by themselves organising a trial to test this hypothesis, treating arrhythmia using iodine alone without the other pharmaceuticals found in Amiodarone. No such trial has ever been carried out, by the way. Only comparisons between different pharmaceutical drugs.

As a third example of iodophobia and misinformation about iodine in the US, the authors use Dr Shames’s article in the July 2002 issue of Bottom Line Health magazine, and debunk three statements of fundamental significance:

1) Shames writes that iodine deficiency is a thing of the past. However, as mentioned above, NHANES III (1988-1994) found 15% of women to be iodine deficient.

2) Shames writes that iodised salt is sufficient to prevent iodine deficiency. However, iodised salt contains at most 75 mcg of iodine per gram, and since most people eat around 5 g/d, this makes at most 375 mcg/d. This amount may be enough to prevent cretinism and goitre, but to obtain even the bare minimum of 5 mg needed by the thyroid, one would have to eat 65 g of iodised salt per day, which is obviously absurd.

3) Shames writes that people living near coastlines could even be getting too much iodine. However, studies in several countries found no difference in iodine intake between inland and coastal regions.

The unfortunate reality is that all those people who will have read either Arem’s books, Roti & Vegenakis’s reviews, Shames’s articles, or any other published works expressing in similar terms, from a position of authority, statements unsupported by evidence or simply and demonstrably false, will rarely be in a position to question or doubt their validity, and will therefore be left with the entirely unfounded negative predisposition towards iodine transmitted by the authors of these publications.

Iodine for the thyroid gland

The cold war was a period during which the fear of nuclear war, and the subsequent nuclear fallout that would sweep across the region around the explosion was very strong. This fear was shared by most people: parents and grandparents, political leaders and scientists. It was known that the thyroid concentrates iodine: more than 100 times the concentration of other organs and tissues (modern measurements in Delange 2000). It was also known that nuclear fallout would come with a release of large amounts of radioactive iodine in the environment. The nuclear explosion was therefore, in its immediate aftermath, most dangerous for its devastating effects on the thyroid: the thyroid gland would soak up all of that radioiodine, which would destroy it, breaking down its cells from within.

The only way to prevent the thyroid from soaking up all that radioactive iodine from the nuclear fallout would be to fill up the receptors of its cells with normal iodine, and thereby minimise the capture of the radioactive isotopes from the explosion. Because iodine is water soluble and not stored very well, to both provide the thyroid with the iodine it needs and protect it from radioactive iodine in the case of a nuclear accident, one would have to take moderately high amounts of iodine every day, or a very large amount as soon as possible before, during or after exposure, and continue for the early period following the explosion, until the levels of radio iodine contamination have dropped. The iodine receptors in the thyroid, breasts, and other tissues being occupied by normal iodine, the radioactive isotopes would have nowhere to latch on, and would therefore simply be excreted in the urine.

Studies were carried out to determine the amount needed to suppress uptake of radioactive iodine. A defined amount of supplemental iodine would be taken, and then a fixed amount of radioiodine administered. Measuring the amount of radioiodine retained by the thyroid in proportion to the amount administered would give the protection factor associated with the amount of supplemental iodine.

Several groups did such experiments. The results of five groups are presented in Figure 1 below. On the x-axis, we have the amount of iodine in mg consumed per day. On the y-axis, we have the percentage of radioiodine taken up by the thyroid. Naturally, the less iodine is consumed, the higher the percentage of radioiodine retained by the thyroid, and conversely, the more supplemental iodine is taken, the lower the percentage of radioiodine uptake.

uptake

Figure 1.  Percentage of radioactive iodine absorption as a function of daily iodine intake. The data are those presented in Table 1 and Figure 1, and the original papers from which they were taken are listed and represented with different symbol. The RDA range is shown by vertical lines at its lower and upper limits of 150 and 290 mcg. The data are presented on a log-log scale. The best fit power-law model is shown as the dashed line, and its parameter values are given.

The greatest protection is conferred by the highest amounts of supplemental iodine, as we can see on the right end of the scale: taking 100 mg/d results in a mere 0.5% uptake, and implies excretion of 99.5% of the radioactive isotope of iodine. At 50 mg/d, uptake is around 1.5%, and excretion around 98.5%. At 20 mg/d, uptake is still below 2% with excretion over 98%, and even at 3 mg/d, uptake is only around 5%, with 95% excretion of the radioactive iodine.

The scale, both on the x-axis and on the y-axis, is logarithmic. This means they have equal spacing in powers of 10. And so, the tick marks between 0.1 and 1 represent steps of 0.1, those between 1 and 10, represent steps of 1, and those between 10 and 100 represent steps of 10 units. The units are mg on the x-axis, and percentage points on the y-axis. A linear relationship (a straight line) in log-log space, as the one we see in this plot, shows to a power-law relation, and power-laws tell us that change is very fast.

In this case, this tells us that increasing iodine intake from nothing to even a little bit, makes a big difference in terms of decreasing the uptake of the radioactive iodine. On the other hand, it also means that as we keep increasing the amount of supplemental iodine, the decrease in uptake becomes less and less significant. Hence, it is very easy to protect the thyroid against nuclear fallout by decreasing uptake of radioiodine from 100% to 20% by taking just 0.7 mg of iodine per day, but to get maximum protection, we need to take 50–100 mg/d. The great news is that we can get full protection, without having to worry about a thing from all this supplemental iodine, because it is basically harmless, and excesses are eliminated.

The authors present these data (together with other data that we don’t discuss here) in a table, and then in a graph, which is logarithmic only in x, but linear in y. Therefore, they interpret the relation—which is clearly linear in log-log space, but not in semi-log space—as showing evidence of four different parts with different slopes and different physiological meanings. I believe the single power-law is both simpler and more natural a model to characterise the relationship between supplemental iodine and radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid. I therefore skip reporting on the details of their analysis of the slopes and x-axis intercepts and interpretation of their meaning.

In addition, the authors rightly point out that none of these studies were intended to measure the optimal amount of supplemental iodine. They were motivated by providing a framework for crisis management in the event of a nuclear war. Nevertheless, their scientific value in understanding iodine needs for optimal thyroid function is indeed great. Other studies intended on measuring thyroid absorption of iodine are mentioned: those of Thompson et al (1930), Wagner et al. (1961), and Fisher et al (1965), all pointing to a maximal absorption rate of iodine of about 600 mcg/d. This is interesting, but not enough because absorption rate will depend on state of deficiency or sufficiency, and will also evolve as iodine levels are replenished, assuming more iodine is provided than is absorbed. But two other cases stand out.

Plummer, a clinician who treated people suffering from Grave’s disease, a severe form of goitre, hypothesised that the hyperthyroidism associated with this condition was caused by iodine deficiency, and furthermore, that it was this deficiency that also caused such a high post-operative mortality rate. He therefore gave his patients 20-30 drops of Lugol’s solution before and 10 drops after operations—that’s 125-187.5 mg before and 62.5 mg after—and happily saw the mortality rate drop to zero. Of course, this didn’t prove his hypothesis as correct; this is never really possible in science. But it is strong supporting evidence, and did show that it was highly likely to be the case. And given that he knew iodine supplementation was harmless, he also knew that it could only help. He was right, and the benefit to his patients couldn’t have been greater: it was life over death. It was, naturally, an easy decision to make. He knew that, and now, so do we.

Koustras et al (1964) performed extensive studies with meticulous accounting of iodine balance on people to quantify the relationship between the amount ingested and retained over a period of several weeks with daily supplementation. This is what they concluded: “From our evidence, it appears that, from all the doses we used, the thyroid took up about 6-7 mg of iodine before an equilibrium in plasma inorganic iodine was reached.” This seems to be, from several lines of evidence, a good estimate of what the thyroid needs.

Iodine for the mammary glands and other tissues

Having established that the thyroid needs 6-7 mg of iodine per day, the authors need to estimate how much is needed by the rest of the body. Because breast tissue concentrates as much iodine as the thyroid, and because, as reported previously, goitre is six times more—that’s 600% more—common in teenage girls as it is in teenage boys, it is essential to consider iodine needs of the mammary glands. Here are some facts the authors present that are associated with the problem of iodine deficiency in women:

  • Japanese have the world’s highest intake of iodine (14 mg/d from 5 g of seaweed, on average), and the lowest incidence of goitre, hypothyroidism, and breast cancer (Finley & Bogardus 1960; Thomas et al 1983, 1986).
  • There is a strong inverse correlation between iodine intake and cancers of the breasts and ovaries, and a strong positive correlation between thyroid volume and breast cancer incidence: 13 ml in Irish women without versus 20 ml in women with breast cancer (Thomas et al 1983, 1986).
  • There is a strong inverse correlation between free T4 and breast cancer. In 5 different ethic groups from Hawaii, Britain and Japan, the highest levels of free T4 in Japan were associated with the lowest incidence of breast cancer. But T4 therapy doubles incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, it is obviously not T4 that protects against breast cancer in Japanese women, but iodine, which, at the same time, ensures optimal T4 levels. (Ghandrakant, Kapdim & Wolfe 1976; Hinze et al. 1989)
  • The amount of iodine needed to prevent FDB and breast cancer is at least 20-40 times greater than what is needed to prevent goitre (Esquin et al. 1995).
  • Thyroid and skin concentrates iodide; breast concentrate iodine. Both are needed.
  • US intake is about 100 times less than in Japan. In the 1960’s iodine was used as an anti-caking agent in flour, which made the average intake approximately four times greater than it is today. Incidence of breast cancer was then 1 in 20. Iodine in flours was replaced by iodine-displacing bromine. Incidence of breast cancer in 2000 (publication date) reported as 1 in 8.
  • Iodine deficiency is without a doubt just as important a cause of thyroid cancer as it is of breast cancer. In 2001 in the US, there were 19500 new cases of thyroid cancers, and of these, 14900 were in women. That’s 75%. Now, in 2017, estimates are for 56870 new cases of which 42,470 will be in women. That’s still 75%, and it’s also about 400% more cases than 15 years ago.

To determine with the greatest precision where iodine is most concentrated within the tissues of the body, and how much is kept, Berson and Yallow (1954) used traceable radioiodine to determine, in addition to what has already been discussed about iodine being most concentrated in the thyroid, breasts, and skin, that the total exchangeable pool of inorganic iodine ranged from 7 to 13 mg across their study. This means, that besides those most iodine-dependent tissues that trap and concentrate it, the body as a whole uses at least this amount on a daily basis.

Given this large amount used by the whole body, iodine must have several other functions besides protecting the structure and ensuring the proper physiology of the thyroid and breasts. Derry (2001) reviewed iodine’s general properties and benefits to a healthy body. He found that iodine works in organs as an antimicrobial agent, that it has a potent apoptotic function in the body’s surveillance mechanisms against abnormal cells, that it has the ability to trigger differentiation, and that, in addition, iodine has powerful antioxidant properties, which confer it equally powerful protective effects on the DNA of cells, because it enhances the singlet to triplet transition, and because the most damaging reactive oxygen species that damage our DNA and other large molecules are usually singlets.

Naturally, these effects strongly depend on the concentration of the available iodine circulating in the fluids of the body. Using fluid concentration measurements in the work of Szent-Gyorgy (1957), the authors estimate that an average daily intake of 12.5 mg of iodine, which at the same time, they underline, would offer protection from nuclear fallout at the 3-4% level, would also be sufficient to confer all of iodine’s antimicrobial, apoptotic, antioxidant and DNA-protecting effects.

Epilogue

The paper ends with an epilogue where the authors express some difficulties in understanding, in the context of evolution, why humans would have evolved needing so much iodine while recognising how hard it is to obtain as much as is needed. In my opinion, there is no difficulty there from the perspective of evolutionary theory. The first homo sapiens in our lineage, those that developed speech, swept across the world, and came to dominate every last part the planet, in all likelihood evolved on a coastline somewhere in south western Africa eating seafood and seaweed. Many believe that it was their diet, rich in animal foods from the sea that gave them this advantage over other species and even other sub-groups of sapiens scattered here and there on the continent. In fact, it is very likely that it was their iodine-rich diet that conferred to them this evolutionary advantage, which was the intelligence for which sapiens are known.

For most of our evolutionary history, bands of humans would have continued to live near coastlines because of all the obvious advantages this offered. As local and global populations grew, bands would scatter in search of more readily available resources and less competition in their ability to access and use them. Those groups that stayed on the coastlines or in areas where the soil was rich in iodine, became the most successful because they were the most intelligent. Those groups that went further inland or lived in areas where the soil was poor in iodine, grew progressively less intelligent and less successful from one generation to the next.

There is no problem at all with such a scenario, and, in fact, modern observations and data collecting techniques confirm this: areas where iodine deficiency is common, have the highest incidence of hypothyroidism, goitre, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, but also cretinisms and intellectual deficiency. As attested by a joke used in some towns in the goitre belt when someone does or says something stupid: “Are you iodine deficient, or something?”

It wouldn’t at all be surprising if, with sufficiently large data sets, we found a strong and tight correlation between iodine intake and IQ levels within populations from the same genetic pool, but also globally across diverse populations from different gene pools. Many other factors come into play. Nevertheless, iodine during pregnancy and childhood is certainly one of the most important for proper intellectual development.

For us, each with our own particular genetic makeup and recent ancestral evolutionary history, each with our personal and family history, each with our time in our mother’s womb, our childhood and teenage hood upbringing and diet, what this means is that we better make sure we take all the iodine we need to first correct, and then prevent the wide spectrum of problems that iodine deficiency and iodine insufficiency bring about. Might as well maximise our health as well as intellectual potential in this simple way. The costs are insignificant, the risks quasi non-existent, and the potential benefits are tremendous.

Summary

This paper is very similar in spirit and purpose to the authors’ first paper. In this second paper, they recall and restate several points they had made in the previous, and extend their detailed investigation of how much iodine is needed for optimal health and function of the whole human body. The main points to remember are that:

  • The fear of iodine is widespread, but wholly unjustified and unfounded.
  • Iodine is most highly concentrated in the thyroid gland.
  • Iodine is essential and crucial for the normal development, and subsequently, normal function of the brain through its action on the thyroid gland.
  • Iodine deficiency is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficiency.
  • In females, iodine is equally concentrated in the breasts as it is in the thyroid.
  • Iodine deficiency is known to cause cretinism and intellectual deficiency, hypothyroidism and goitre, nervousness, anxiety and restless leg syndrome, fibrocystic breast disease, thyroid cancer, and breast cancer.
  • Iodine deficiency causes goitre in women 6 times more often than in men.
  • Breast cancer now affects 1/8 women. In the 1960’s it affected 1/20.
  • Thyroid cancer rates have quadrupled in 15 years from 2001 to 2016.
  • 75% of thyroid cancer cases are in women.
  • The thyroid gland needs approximately 6 mg of iodine per day.
  • The mammary glands and rest of the body need approximately 6-8 mg per day.
  • The Japanese are the only known population with iodine sufficiency from diet, which provides on average 14 mg of iodine from seaweed.
  • Minimum average requirement for iodine sufficiency is around 12.5 mg/day.
  • As is the case for most micronutrients, some people need more, some less.
  • It will often be necessary to consume a lot more for extended periods in order to overcome and/or reverse the effects of a long-standing insufficiency or deficiency.
  • Maximum protection of the thyroid from nuclear fallout is gotten at 50-100 mg/day.

We will continue this series with an article by the same three authors entitled: Measurement of urinary Iodine Levels by Ion-Selective Electrode: Improved Sensitivity and Specificity by Chromatography on Anion-Exchange Resin.

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The Iodine Papers 1 – Optimum iodine for the whole body

I will review a collection of research papers written by Guy Abraham (mainly), several of them with David Browstein, Jorge Flechas, John Hakala, individually and in different combinations, one paper with Nicholas Calvino, and another with Roxane Handal. They were published in The Original Internist between 2002 and 2008.

These papers form the backbone of the science and clinical evidence that has brought about the resurgence of the therapeutic use of iodine in natural medicine, and together with it, tremendous benefits to thousands of people who have recovered their health from supplemental iodine. I will, in the process, probably review some of the papers that are referenced. My intention is to present a detailed summary of each one of these papers as a series that we’ll call The Iodine Papers. This is the first:

Levels of Iodine for Greatest Mental and Physical Health  by Guy E. Abraham, MD, Jorge D. Flechas, MD, and John C. Hakala, RPh

seaweedsaladinbowl_cropped

The question posed by the authors is a simple one:  what are optimal levels of iodine for overall health. But seeking the answer in the published literature, they discovered that there wasn’t one. This paper has three logical parts. The first is a long introduction that includes a review of several historical studies in which they seek to find clues as to what would be the optimum amount to take on a daily basis; optimal meaning not too little, and not too much. The second part is the presentation of the results of a three-month study they did on ten American Caucasian women taking supplemental iodine. And the third is the discussion and conclusions, that naturally includes their proposal for what constitutes the optimal amount of iodine we should have daily.

For those (like you M) who are not interested in the details, but just in the answer, in this case it’s 12.5 mg per day, in the form of 5 mg of iodine and 7.5 mg of potassium iodide because the two different forms are needed by different tissues. For those of you who are interested, I’ll present the contents of the paper in the structure outlined in the previous paragraph.

Introduction and previous studies

In a 1998 editorial in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism entitled What’s happening to our iodine?, it is stated that one third of the world live in iodine-deficient areas, and that iodine-deficiency is the leading cause of intellectual deficiency (mental retardation).

The earliest studies that are reported are from the 1920’s, one by Marine in Ohio, and one by Klinger before him in Switzerland. Klinger’s was performed in an area of the country that had, at the time, an 82–95% incidence of goitre in its population. Goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. Obviously a very serious problem. The study comprised 760 teenagers, of which 90% (684) had goitre. They received between 10 and 20 mg of iodine per week, which equated to an average of 1.4 to 2 mg/day. Fifteen months later, none had experienced adverse effects of any kind, 472 (69%) had recovered, but 212 (28%) still had an enlarged thyroid. The government therefore opted for a slightly higher dose, advising supplementation with 3–5 mg of iodine per day.

Marine did his study in Akron, Ohio, where the incidence of thyroid enlargement was not as high, but still 56%. Goitre appeared most often in puberty and six times more often in girls than in boys, and six times more often means 600% more. That’s a huge difference. They therefore used only girls. This study was much larger, and everyone started the programme with no signs of thyroid enlargement. 2190 received iodine supplementation, and 2304 were used as controls and didn’t get any.

The programme ran for 2.5 years, with 5 periods of supplementation, one in the spring and one in the fall, in which the participants were given 200 mg of sodium iodide per day for 10 days. If we calculate a daily average out of those total of 4 grammes per year, it gives 11 mg of sodium iodide, and thus something like 8 mg of iodine. At the end of the 2.5 years, 495 out of 2304 (that’s 22%) in the control group had developed goitre, compared to only 5 out of 2190 (that’s 0.2%) in the supplementation group.

In 1966, two Russian scientists hypothesised that pathologies of the breasts in women could be caused by excess oestrogen from ovarian cysts due to insufficient iodine. They took 200 patients with what they called “dyshormonal hyperplasia of the mammary glands”, and gave them 10–20 mg of potassium iodide per day for periods that varied between six months and three years. Within three months a majority experienced significant improvements with decrease in pain, swelling and nodularity. In the 167 who completed the programme, 72% experienced significant improvements. Five patients who had ovarian cysts saw them reduce in numbers and size.

Then in 1976, a group of Canadian researchers led by Ghent, extended this study on women with breast disease, and tried different forms of iodine supplements in different amounts on three different groups. They had 233 women on 30–60 mg/day from a 5% Lugol’s solution for 2 years, 588 women on 10 mg from iodine caseinate for 5 years, and 1365 on 3–6 mg/day from saturated aqueous iodine solution for 1.5 years.

Clinical improvement—both subjective in terms of pain, swelling, discomfort; and objective in terms of reduced fibres and nodules—were seen and measured in all three groups, but with different success rates:  74% in the group using the saturated aqueous iodine solution (3–6 mg/day), 70% in the Lugol group, and 40% in the iodine caseinate group. Moreover, different numbers of women reported adverse effects from the supplementation: 11% in the aqueous iodine group, 7% in the Lugol, and 9.5% in the caseinate group.

Notably, the authors reported on the results of autopsies performed in 1928 and in 1973. Evidence for fibrocystic disease of the breast (FDB) was present in 3% of women in 1928. In 1973, FDB was present in 89% of women. That’s 9 out of 10 women back in 1973. Do you think the magnitude of the problem has decreased since? Not likely.

In Japan, Nagasaki and colleagues published in 1967 the results of their investigation of the relationship between iodine consumption and disorders of the thyroid and breasts. They surveyed different regions, some mainland and some coastal, and found an average daily consumption of seaweed of 4.6 g in mainland areas, which translated into 13.8 mg of combined iodine and iodide. Inhabitants of coastal areas had an even higher daily consumption of iodine. Investigation into the function of the thyroid supplied iodine in the amounts ingested in coastal areas showed that it absorbs more than it secretes as T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) whose levels remain in a narrow physiological range, and that the rest, the amount unused in making T3 and T4, is secreted as inorganic iodine, presumably to be available in that form to other tissues. The reason why this was an important study is that Japanese women consuming this amount of iodine, have very low rates of thyroid and breast disorders.

Finally, maybe as a remnant and reminder of the importance of iodine in medicine up to our current era of drug-based medicine, the authors make note of the fact that in the 1995 version of the standard reference Remington’s Science and Practice of Pharmacy, the 19th edition of this work (now in its 21st), which “for over 100 years has been the definitive textbook and reference on the science and practice of pharmacy”, the recommended daily intake of Lugol’s 5% solution is between 0.1 and 0.3 ml. Lugol’s 5% contains 125 mg of iodine per ml. Therefore, 0.1 ml has 12.5 mg, and 0.3 ml has 37.5 mg of iodine. The authors point out that today, the recommended daily intake in North American and Western Europe varies between 150 and 300 micrograms per day. That’s a factor of 83 and 125 times less, respectively, two orders of magnitude less.

The study

Based on these studies and observations, the authors move on with their own investigation to determine the amount of iodine needed for breast normality, using an amount of 12.5 mg of iodine in the same form as in Lugol’s solution, providing 5 mg of elemental iodine and 7.5 mg of potassium iodide (KI) in a calibrated, silica-coated tablet to ensure precise dosage, and prevent any possible kind of digestive upsets experienced by some taking Lugol’s solution. (The molecular weights of iodine (I) and potassium (K) are 127 and 39. Therefore, their contribution in KI by weight is 76.5% I and 23.5% K. Hence 7.5 mg of KI contains 5.74 mg of I and 1.76 mg of K, and thus a 12.5 mg tablet contains 10.74 mg of I and 1.76 mg of K.)

Ten caucasian women with normal thyroid volume (< 18 ml), and a range of BMIs statistically representative of the general population based on the NHANES III study (1988-94) in which 25% were overweight, and 25% were obese. Five of the subjects had normal BMI (18.5–24.9), two were overweight (25–29.9), and three were obese (> 30). BMI is defined as the weight in kg divided by the square of the height in meters. So that if you weigh 60 kg and measure 165 cm, your BMI is 60/(1.65*1.65) = 22. Underweight is defined as BMI < 18.5.

An interesting observation about thyroid volume measurements, is that the upper limit for a “normal” thyroid is taken to be 18 ml. These ten women’s average was 7.7 ml (with standard deviation 3.6). That’s almost half. Moreover, looking at national averages in a number of countries, the authors report they are found to be as follows (in increasing order): Sweden – 7.7 ml, Holland – 8.7 ml, Hong Kong – 8.9 ml, Ireland – 12.9 ml, and Germany – 16.5 ml. Not surprisingly, the countries with the highest average volumetric measurements are those with the lowest intake of iodine, and are those with the highest incidence of goitre.

After 90 days of supplementation, the most significant improvements that were noted by the participants were decrease in breast sensitivity or pain, decrease in tremors and in restless leg syndrome. There was no significant effect on blood pressure, body temperature, or body composition except for a small amount of fat loss. From the urinalysis, the only significant difference was that the average pH of the ten participants was 6.05 (+/- 0.69) at the start of the trial, and 7.00 (+/- 0.85) at the end of it. This was attributed by the authors to iodine’s antioxidant properties that would naturally reduce the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the cells, and thereby decrease the acid load on the system, leading to an increase in overall pH that would be manifested by an increase in urinary pH as well.

Blood chemistry was monitored using 17 markers. All stayed within their reference range. But although no significant changes were seen, qualitative improvements were seen in 9 of them (e.g., drop in creatine, drop in calcium, drop in albumin, rise in sodium, rise in carbon dioxide).

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) stayed within range for most, except for two participants (#1 and #10) who showed remarkable improvements with a drop from 7.8 to 1.4, and from 21.5 to 11.9 mIU/L. These two participants also showed the most significant change in T4 from 9.2 to 7.9 and 8.3 to 5.4 micrograms/dL, while none of the others saw much change in these values. Free T4 and free T3 stayed more or less the same in everyone. Hypothyroidism is defined as having TSH > 6 mIU/L, and it is estimated that of the order of 8 million American women are hypothyroid, but most of them are unaware of it, what is referred to as subclinical hypothyroid.

Breast pain (mastodynia) significantly decreased in 7 out of the 10 participants, and these improvements persisted for at least 3 months after the end of the supplementation. The authors suggest that the potential mechanisms by which iodine can improve breast health and prevent cancer is by neutralising DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species in the cells, by ensuring proper regulation of the cell’s apoptotic function, and by its ability to trigger differentiation (Derry 2001), therefore stopping or reversing the process by which cells lose their specialised functions as they become cancerous. Obviously, these are crucially important properties of iodine that are independent of thyroid hormones.

Discussion and conclusions

The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of iodine supplementation in American caucasian women, a population with a high incidence of FDB and breast cancer, with a daily iodine intake comparable to that of women living in Japan with a very low incidence of both FDB and breast cancer. A key aspect of the study was to measure thyroid function and investigate evidence of toxicity. They identify and discuss three potential adverse effects of iodine supplementation: iodism, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (IIH), and iodine-induced goitre (IIG).

Iodism—an unpleasant brassy/metal taste in the mouth, increased salivation, nausea, and headache in the frontal sinuses—was reported in previous studies on several occasions by people taking 150 mg/day or more. The authors mention that it could have been due to traces of bromine or iodate in the supplements. None of the participants reported signs of iodism in this study.

Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (IIH)—a condition that occurs in iodine-deficient people in the early stages of iodine supplementation—is described in The Thyroid (8th edition, 2000) by Werner & Ingbar in the following terms: “iodine deficiency increases thyrocite (thyroid cells) proliferation and mutation rates. Possible consequences are the development of autonomous hyper-functioning nodules in the thyroid…and hyperthyroidism. Therefore, IIH is an iodine-deficiency disorder.” None of the participants developed IIH in this study.

Iodine-induced Goitre (IIG) and hypothyroidism—a condition that occurs only under very high doses around 2 g/day (2000 mg/day), and seen in some patients when iodine is used as an expectorant in treating asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema—was not seen in any of the patients of this study. It is noted that people with normal thyroid function taking up to 150 mg/day will see decreases in plasma T3 and T4 concentrations with small compensating increases in TSH but all remaining within normal range. However, in people with thyroid disorders, supplementation can induce IIG, and therefore, supervision through regular blood testing of thyroid markers is important.

It has been obvious for a long time that women need more iodine than men. Evidence of this was seen in Marine’s study in Ohio in the 1920’s, where goitre was 6 times more prevalent in teenage girls than in boys of the same age. Marine also showed that supplementation with the equivalent of 9 mg/d of iodine prevent goitre almost completely, although a few still developed it over the 2.5 year period of the experiment. It has also been known for some time that iodine deficiency leads to abnormalities of the mammary glands.

Studies on female rats by Esquin et al. showed that iodine supplementation was essential to prevent FDB and cancer, and using molecular tracing techniques, also showed that the thyroid preferentially concentrates iodide, whereas breast tissue concentrate iodine. Thrall & Bull (1990) confirmed Sequin’s findings, and in addition, showed that skin cells, as the thyroid, concentrate iodide, whereas the stomach cells, as the mammary glands, concentrate iodine. Therefore, these two forms—iodine and iodide—are not interchangeable as it was believed for a long time, and both forms are needed and essential for healthy physiology.

To establish how much is needed for the breast and thyroid separately, having at this point established that the amount needed for mammary gland sufficiency must be around 12.5–13.8 mg/day, involves establishing the amount of iodine needed for proper thyroid function. For this, the authors refer to the work of Saxena et al. (1962) who define thyroid iodine sufficiency as the minimal daily dose required to decrease the uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid to at most 5% of the total radioactive dose administered. The rationale and protective strategy is simple: if there is enough normal iodine to fill the thyroid, its cells will not absorb the radioactive iodine (and it will be excreted); but if there isn’t, it will, and that radioactive iodine, lodged in the cells of the thyroid, will, within days, destroy the gland. Saxena and colleagues established that for an adult this minimal effective daily dose is 3–4 mg.

This implies that the thyroid needs at least this much daily in the form of iodide, and that the breasts therefore need at least around 9 mg daily. But note that this is the amount needed to maintain proper function and health. Correcting deficiencies and overcoming disorders of the thyroid like goitre or hypothyroidism, of the breasts like FDB or cancer, or of the skin like psoriasis or eczema, will require more, sometime a lot more, and usually for extended periods of time.

Moreover, for complete protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine exposure, Sternthal et al. (1980) showed that further suppression can be achieved using higher doses over at least 12 days: 4% absorption at 10 mg, 1.9% at 15 mg, 1.6% at 30 mg, 1.2% at 50 mg, and 0.6% at 100 mg daily, with no risks at all from the supplementation that remains below the 150 mg/day threshold beyond which some adverse effects can sometimes occur.

Abraham, Flechas and Hakala conclude by stating their intention to expand this pilot study and build a database to develop a protocol for iodine supplementation in FDB and other conditions such as subclinical hypothyroidism.

What is clear from reading this paper is that everyone, but especially girls and women, would benefit from taking more iodine and iodide in amounts of at least 12.5 mg/day. For some this could be lifesaving. And because there are no risks, there are no reasons not to. Furthermore, it was also made clear that much larger doses up to 150 mg/day can be taken, still without risks of adverse reactions, and with the potential benefits of much improved health and powerful healing of very serious conditions such as breast cancer.

We will continue this series with an article by the same three authors entitled Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body.

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You have cancer, and there’s lots you can do

Everybody knows that cancer rates are rising everywhere and every year. Everybody also knows that the words, “You have cancer. I am sorry.”, fall upon us like a death sentence. Everybody knows this, because we see it all around us, everywhere we look, and we hear about it every day, everywhere we turn.

If a doctor has, indeed, said these words to us, then we are probably scared, probably very scared. We know that basically everyone we have ever heard of who were diagnosed with cancer, died. Sometimes they died really quickly, like, within a few weeks. Sometimes they died within a few months. Sometimes it wasn’t so quick. Maybe it took a year of two, or three, or even five. They went through rounds of chemo. They were on sick leave at home for months on end. They sometimes appeared to recover at some point, maybe a bit, for a little while, but in the end, they died. And they died of cancer.

We also know that not even the most famous and richest people, like Steve Jobs, for example, can escape this kiss of death that the diagnosis of cancer delivers. Wealth and power are irrelevant when it comes to our prognosis as cancer patients: it is always bad. Of course, how bad it is depends on the kind of cancer, but why is it that so many different people, in so many different places, die of cancer every day?

I won’t venture into formulating an answer to this question, and I won’t dwell on cancer survival statistics. I don’t think it’s useful for us right now. I want to hurry and move to the good news. And the good news is that there many things you can do to help your body rid itself of cancer, which is usually the result of a long-standing disease process that has evolved over a lifetime, and has finally manifested itself in this way. This presentation of the question at hand is definitely not exhaustive, nor attempting to be. But this is what I consider to be some of the essential elements.

whitebloodcellsattackingcancercells

White blood cells (shown in blue) attacking cancer cells (shown in red).

 

Understanding cancer

To understand cancer, we have to understand the origin of cancer cells. Cells become cancerous due to a defect in energy production, a mitochondrial dysfunction, an inability to manufacture enough ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through oxidation of glucose or fatty acids to sustain the cell’s functions. This forces the cell to fall back on anaerobic (without oxygen) fermentation of glucose to supplement the deficient energy production from the dysfunctional or reduced number of mitochondria. Fermentation produces an increase in lactic acid in and around the cell. This decreases the availability of oxygen to the mitochondria, which further impedes their ability to produce ATP through oxidation of nutrients, and creates a negative feedback loop that pushes towards further mitochondrial stress and dysfunction, less oxidation, more fermentation, more acid, and less available oxygen.

Because energy production through fermentation is so very inefficient, the cell needs far more glucose, and naturally develops more insulin receptors in order to be ever more sensitive to, and able to capture circulating glucose more effectively. Cancer cells often have 10 times more insulin receptors than healthy cells. What should be clear is that it doesn’t matter where the cancer is, and it doesn’t matter how it evolved, whether it was due to a gradual evolution from an environment too high in glucose, lacking in oxygen, and saturated with acid, or whether it was due to exposure to a toxin or mitochondrial poison, of which there are many and increasingly more in our environment. In the final analysis, this is how cancer cells become how they are, and this is how they survive.

As to their multiplication and proliferation from a single or small group of microscopic cells to large macroscopic tumours in one spot or all over the place, this can be understood by considering that the cell that is devolving from its normal function to that of cell whose only function is to ferment glucose at the fastest possible rate, loses, little by little, the ability to do whatever it was doing before, by losing the ability to produce ATP that can be used by its different specialised parts and constituents to perform their specialised functions, the cell becomes less and less specialised, less and less differentiated and therefore more and more general and more and more primitive, to the point where the essential ability of the cell to destroy itself, when something in its workings has gone wrong, is lost. Having lost this safeguard, the primitive, the undifferentiated, but also necessarily abnormal and weakened cell, just ferments and multiplies, limited only by its ability to fuel itself and sustain this most basic activity of survival without other purpose but this survival in and of itself.

Removing cancer

Having recognised and understood this, the strategy by which we can help the body rid itself of the cancer cells, and regain its healthy physiological functions becomes clear. We have to 1) do all we can to cut off the source of fuel to the cancer cells, 2) clear out the accumulated acids and transform the acidic environment into one that is alkaline and oxygen-rich, 3) help restore the cells’ mechanism of apoptosis—their ability to self-destruct, and 4) do everything else we can to further weaken and destroy cancer cells by means that simultaneously strengthen healthy cells. It’s a simple strategy that is also simple to put into practice, as we will see in a moment.

1) Starve the cancer cells

The first point is to cut off the fuel to the cancer cells. The source of fuel is glucose, because cancer cells can only ferment and cannot oxidise, and the way the glucose is supplied to the cell is by the action of insulin that moves it across the cell membrane. Therefore, what has to be done to is minimise the availability of glucose, and, more important still, minimise the availability of insulin to shuttle the glucose into the cells. The lower the glucose, the less potential fuel there will be. The lower the insulin, the less glucose will actually be able to enter cells. There is no real lower limit. Without ingesting any carbohydrates, the body maintains and regulates blood sugar according to the stress levels and kinds of activities we engage in, independently of how low insulin levels are. And so, the focus should be to have the lowest possible insulin levels naturally.

The fastest way to lower blood sugar, but especially insulin, is to fast, to stop eating altogether, and just drink water and herbal tea, remembering to eat enough salt to match the water intake. The second best way of doing this is in form very similar, but turns out to be much easier to do, is also a kind of water fasting, but with the addition of fat from coconut oil and butter, melted in the herbal teas. Both of these forms of fasting will most effectively deprive the body of anything that can easily be made into glucose, and of anything that will stimulate the secretion of insulin, thereby will allow glucose to drop as low as possible, but more importantly, insulin to drop and stay at an absolute minimum, and therefore most effectively starving cancer cells, no matter where they are in the body and bodily fluids, in the tissues and organs. The first form of the classic water fast is harder, but many people do it without hesitation nor difficulty. The second form is much easier, and may even be more effective in inducing a deep state of ketosis given the additional intake of medium chain fatty acids.

We can easily imagine doing such a fat “fast” for days, or even weeks, depending on the severity of the situation, our resolve to suffocate and starve the cancer cells as quickly as possible, and, of course, the state and circumstances in which we find ourselves. In addition, we can do this as much as possible on any given day, independently of what else we eat. The more fat and the less carbohydrate we ingest, the lower the insulin and the more effective the anti-cancer healing protocol will be.

The third option is to eat and drink to keep insulin levels as low as possible. Here again, because fat is the macronutrient that stimulates the least secretion of insulin, truly minimal, it should be the main source of calories. Simple carbohydrates and starches are most insulinogenic, and protein is about half as insulinogenic as are carbs. Indigestible fibre does not stimulate insulin. Therefore, in the extreme, we would eat only fat, pure fat. The best ones being the most natural and least processed, most saturated and least unsaturated: coconut fat, butter, animal fat and, the best of the vegetable oils, cold pressed olive oil.

It’s important to understand the difference between having low blood sugar, and having low insulin levels. The first is like the amount of food in the kitchens of the restaurant, the second is like the waiter bringing it to the table. It is far, far more important in our efforts to stop the supply to cancer cells that we keep insulin levels as low as possible, than it is to try to keep glucose levels low. And to push the point further, it doesn’t really matter what the amount of glucose actually is, because as long as insulin is low, it will not be brought into the cell, into the cancer cells. The reason I emphasise this is because lack of sleep, emotional or psychological stress, intense physical exercise will all raise blood sugar levels temporarily, in some instances, to high levels. But as long as insulin is as low as it can be, the sugar will not be readily transported into the cells.

Naturally, we cannot have zero insulin, because we would die: our cells would literally starve to death, no matter how much we ate. Babies with a genetic defect that makes their pancreas not able to produce insulin always died of emancipation before the discovery and subsequent commercialisation of insulin as medicine. Similarly, if at any point in a child’s or adult person’s life, insulin stops being produced, incredible weakness and emancipation will follow, before it is tested and identified as the cause of their problem, hopefully in time before permanent damage ensues. Therefore, there is always some insulin in circulation, and therefore, sugar will eventually make its way into at least some cancer cells. This is why it is important to keep it as low as we possibly can naturally, and this is how we can appreciate the essential difference between the effects of high glucose and high insulin.

In a less extreme form than the fat-fast, we maintain low sugar and low insulin by getting and deriving most of our energy from fat. Eating cucumber or celery with almond butter or tahini, for example, or a green leafy salad with lots of olive oil, walnuts, and avocado, provides basically all calories from the fat, given that cucumber, celery and lettuce greens, are basically just water and indigestible fibre, while almond butter and tahini are 80\% fat by calories, and walnuts are 84\%. So is coconut milk, for example, at nearly 90\%, and dark 85\% chocolate, at 84\% fat based on calories. Focusing on feeding the body with these kinds of healthful, high-fat foods, will nourish, stimulate healing, and keep insulin and glucose levels as low as we can without either water fasting, or consuming only fat.

2) Alkalise to remove and excrete accumulated acids

The second point is just as important as the first, because it is the environment in which the cells live that actually has the most direct effect on their function. We have looked at the importance of achieving and maintaining an alkaline environment in the body in several other places. The essence is excellent hydration with alkaline water (pH>8) combined with the intake of proportional amounts of unrefined salt to promote the release of acids from the tissues, and its excretion through the urine by the kidneys. Without proper hydration, the cells will retain the acid with the little water they have to hold on to. Without proper amounts of salt, the kidneys will also retain the acid in order to maintain the concentration gradient that allows the nephron to function when it re-absorbs water.

Naturally, alkaline water will work infinitely more effectively. But the most important detail is the controlled balance between water and salt intake, and what we want is a lot of water and a lot of salt. We cannot take in large amounts of salt water without getting loose stools. So, it has to be smoothly distributed throughout the day, except in the morning, when we get up, because we are dehydrated, and need to drink about 1 litre of water over the course of one to two hours, before we start taking salt.

If you buy mineral or spring water, find the one that has the highest pH value. It should be greater than at least 8. If you have a water filter at home, then add alkalising drops to it before drinking it. I use Dr. Young’s PuripHy drops.

As acidity decreases, and the environment becomes more alkaline, oxygen will flow more freely, and become more available to mitochondria for oxidising fatty acids in producing energy. Remember that cancer cells do not use oxygen, and cannot use fatty acids to fuel themselves, whereas normal, healthy cells, not only can, but function much more efficiently on fat rather than glucose as their primary fuel. Adding chlorophyll and fresh juice of green vegetables to the alkaline water is an excellent way to further boost alkalisation, neutralisation, and elimination of accumulated metabolic acids. Unlike the first step, which is to lower insulin and glucose levels, and that can be done, to a great extent, literally overnight under fasting conditions, alkalising to eliminate accumulated acids is something that takes time. But in both cases, what matters most is consistency. Hour by hour, and day after day, the body will do what it needs to do as best is can, and improve in these functions with time.

Beyond this fundamental necessity to hydrate with alkaline water throughout the day, and day after day, the most therapeutic way to alkalise the tissues, and detoxify the body, is by taking medicinal baths in which we add two cups of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and two cups of magnesium chloride (nigari), or magnesium sulphate (epsom salts), if nigari is not available. This is easy, relaxing, extremely medicinal, and very effective in neutralising and eliminating acids and toxins from the body. In fighting cancer, you should be soaking in this kind of hot bath for 45-60 minutes three times per week. The benefits of this ultra simple trans-dermal therapy with sodium bicarbonate and magnesium are incredible. You can read a lot more about this from the baking soda, magnesium and iodine doctor, Dr Sircus.

3) Restore cellular self-destruct function

The third line of action is also essential, and it only requires you to take a few key supplements. The most important of these in the fight agains cancer is iodine, because of its fundamental role both in the structure and architecture of cells, but also in the regulation of apoptosis, the process by which a damaged cell will self-destruct when things have gone wrong somewhere. The importance of iodine cannot be overemphasised. And in healing cancer, or any serious disease condition, we will want to take high doses daily. Doses of at least 50 mg, but preferably 100 mg.

However, because of its very strong detoxification effects, as it pushes out all accumulated toxic halogens out of the cells to replace these by iodine in its proper place, we must work up to these high doses gradually, starting with 12.5 mg, and increasing the dosage as quickly as possible given the body’s response to it. Some people , maybe most, will experience headaches and possible nausea when starting on iodine. This is perfectly normal. The stronger the reaction, the more indicative of the body’s level of toxicity. Therefore, you should always view this as something good, in that toxins are being excreted out of your cells. It is important to support the detoxification process by taking chlorella and spirulina, probiotics and psyllium husks every day as well, while always drinking a lot of alkaline water with added chlorophyll for extra cleansing, if possible.

What I take and consider to be the best supplement is Iodoral by Optimox. Optimox recommends taking the iodine on an empty stomach for faster absorption, but it can also be taken with food for slower and possibly better assimilation. In addition, although iodine can easily be taken on an empty stomach, the co-factors, which include B vitamins, are much better taken with food to avoid potential nausea or queasiness. Moreover, taking it with food will slow down the absorption, and thereby decrease the negative sensations from the detoxification effects. The only thing is that iodine, given its stimulation of thyroid function, will energise the body. Therefore, it should be taken before midday. I take it either first thing in the morning or at lunch (or both).

You can read about the importance and functions of iodine in the following three books: Iodine, Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It by Dr. Brownstein; What Doctors Fail to Tell You About Iodine and Your Thyroid by Dr. Thompson; and The iodine crisis: what you don’t know about iodine can wreck your life by L. Farrow. There are also many web resources and highly informative forums about iodine and cancer. You can search for the words iodine and cancer to see for yourself.

Other fundamentally important micronutrients are vitamins B12 and D, both of which are needed for proper cellular function, and DNA transcription and replication, because of their roles in the nucleus of cells, activating and de-activating, switching on and off genes, to ensure everything in the cell works as it should. For best and fastest results—and that’s definitely what we need in our fighting cancer—B12 should be injected weekly in the amount of 1 mg, and in the form of methylcobalamin. (For optimal health in normal circumstances, it can be injected once a month in the amount of 5 mg.) Vitamin D should be taken with its sister vitamins, A and K2, for synergistic effects and biochemical balance in their functions. Each of these have complimentary roles, and should generally be taken together, unless there is a reason not to. You can read these two articles published by Chris Masterjohn from the Weston A. Price Foundation to learn why and how: On the trail of the elusive X-factor: a sixty two year old mystery finally solved, and Update on vitamins A and D.

It is by supporting proper cellular function, especially in the nucleus, with iodine, B12 and D, that cells will regain, little by little, the ability to recognise that they are damaged and need to self-destruct. There will always be millions or even billions of cells involved in the disease process we call cancer, but they will be distributed along a wide spectrum of dysfunction, from having very mildly impaired mitochondrial function from a light oxygen deficit cause by a little too much acid in the environment surrounding the cell, to full cancer cells that derive 100% of their energy needs from anaerobic fermentation without using any oxygen at all, and thriving in extremely acidic conditions.

Hence, many cells will die from being starved of glucose, because that’s the only fuel they can use; many cells will recover enough of their normal regulatory mechanisms to know its time to self-destruct; and many cells will actually regain their healthy function, repair their damaged parts, and replace their dysfunctional mitochondria with new ones. Nothing is ever black and white when it comes to cells and cellular function. Instead, everything is grey. But it is a million different shades of grey.

4) Do everything else that can help

The fact is that there are many, many more things you can do. Many therapies, many treatments, many supplements and herbal formulas, that have all proved highly effective against cancer. There are so many that many books have been written about them: About Raymond Rife, you can read The Cancer Cure That Worked by Barry Lynes; about Gaston Naessens, you can read The Persecution and Trial of Gaston Naessens: The True Story of the Efforts to Suppress an Alternative Treatment for Cancer, AIDS, and Other Immunologically Based Diseases by Christopher Bird; about Rene Caisse and the Essiac tonic, you can read Essiac: The Secrets of Rene Caisse’s Herbal Pharmacy; about Johanna Budwig, you can read Cancer – The Problem and the Solution; and the list goes on. There are websites devoted to these people and their approach to cancer, and this is just a few of them that I know about. One book that compiles a lot, maybe most, of the information on non-toxic treatments for cancer, is Ty Bollinger’s Cancer: Step Outside the Box.

Maybe you find it hard to believe that our governmental and medical authorities would have gone—and continue to this day—to go through such extreme measures in order to suppress treatments that work so effectively to help and heal people of their illnesses and of cancer, without negative side effects, and at very low costs. But this is a simple fact. And it is quite easy to understand if we consider that anyone, or any institution, that has commercial investments and interests in a particular endeavour, will go to great lengths to maintain and strengthen, as much as they can and for as long as they can, the conditions that make them successful. There’s nothing more to it than that. Let’s look at a few of those therapies and supplements which are easy to implement, and highly effective against cancer: hyperthermia, flax seed oil, enzymes, and turmeric.

Hyperthermia, or heat therapy, is a very well studied and effective therapy against cancer, both preventatively and curatively. The idea or principle is very simple: healthy cells can withstand high temperatures without damage. The reason why this is so, and why we know it for sure, is that the body produces fevers as a defence mechanism to destroy invading viruses and bacteria that, unlike our own cells, cannot withstand the heat. Similarly, cancer, and other compromised and damaged cells, are unable to cope with high heat. Hence, it was hypothesised, tested, verified and demonstrated that hyperthermia is really very effective at destroying cancer, while simultaneously cleansing and strengthening healthy cells and tissues. Infrared saunas are ideal in heating the tissues more deeply, but any sauna, steam room, or even bath that induces hyperthermia by raising the temperature in the body, will help kill cancer cells, cleanse, and restore health.

Enzyme therapy has also been used for many decades in the treatment of cancer patients extremely successfully. The late Nicolas Gonzalez who passed away last year, was its most recent champion, following in the footsteps of his mentor, Dr William Kelley. The treatment protocols are more complicated, and are always highly individualised, but the main element is the supplementation with large doses of enzymes, combined with the colon cleansing to eliminate the dead tumour tissues from the body. Large quantities of fresh vegetable juice are also often included in his recommendations. You can read about it here: http://www.dr-gonzalez.com/index.htm, but whether you decide to throw yourself completely into it or not, I strongly recommend taking proteolytic enzymes three times per day, always on an empty stomach at least 30 minutes before eating, and support cleansing by taking a colon cleanser before going to bed. This site, http://www.losethebackpain.com, has good quality enzymes and cleansing supplements that we’ve used, but you can also do your own research.

Flax seed oil, organic and cold pressed, combined with fresh organic quark or cottage cheese is, based on Johanna Budwig’s extensive, lifelong research, as well as practical clinical experience with patients, is another one of the most effective and simple cancer treatments. And although the biochemistry of it, and biochemical pathways through which the cancer is weakened and destroyed may be complicated, the implementation is very easy and simple, costs very little, and cannot in any way bring about harm, unless one is severely allergic to milk proteins (in which case the dairy can be replaced with another source of protein that will work as the carrier). Here is a good article that has links to other excellent articles about this: https://www.cancertutor.com/make_budwig/

Turmeric, an ancient, bright yellow, Indian spice, which is a powder made from drying the ginger-like root that is turmeric, is one of the most researched natural substances in modern times, and is surely one of the most powerful natural anti-cancer supplements. Since it has tons of wide-ranging health benefits, and carries no risks at all, it’s clear that everyone can benefit from it. You can read about it from Mercola here. You should take it three times per day, but with your meals, because the more fat there is in the gut, the better the absorption will be, as is true for most antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.

I feel it is important to emphasise the point just made about the risk-free nature of supplementing with turmeric, because it is a crucial point that applies to everything we have discussed here, and everything we have discussed in all the natural healing protocols and nutritional approaches we have presented in the past. Food-based nutritional healing is, in general, risk-free, because it doesn’t involve ingestion of or exposure to toxic substances, and instead involves correcting deficiencies, boosting nutritional status, and optimising the biochemical and hormonal environment of the body in order to promote healing.

Of course, we can object by referring to examples of people dying from drinking too much water too quickly. But we are not talking about such extremes. Nonetheless, we could, for example, eat coconut oil or butter all day, and other than the possible nausea from taking in so much fat, you wouldn’t get anything more than loose stools. Moreover, the body’s own hormonal responses would naturally prevent overconsumption through a feeling of extreme satiety that would basically make it impossible to willingly eat more.

Another example is that of using baking soda or iodine. So simple, and yet so powerful, they stand as the perfect examples of the benign nature but extreme effectiveness of natural healing. We find written in the most recent edition of the Manual for the Medical Management of Radiological Casualties of the US Military Medical Operations, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, that sodium bicarbonate will “prevent deposition of uranium carbonate complexes in the renal tubules”, and that we should, “within 4 hours of exposure, administer potassium iodide (KI) to block uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid”, because they are the best known ways to protect the kidneys and thyroid from being destroyed by the radioactive elements that would—without the use of sodium bicarbonate and potassium iodide—migrate to these organs and destroy them.

But why wait for a chemical spill or a nuclear power station meltdown in order to rid the body of accumulated chemicals and toxins, and to replenish every cell with a plentiful supply of iodine to ensure that all cells and all glands function at their best, now and every day? We don’t have to wait. The same goes for turmeric, for enzymes, for B12, for A-D-K2, for hydration, for alkalisation, for minimal glucose and minimal insulin loads, for maximum nutrition and maximum health. Why don’t we start doing this preventatively right now?

Summary and Wrap up

Maybe you know all of this stuff already, or maybe you don’t and you are blown away and overwhelmed by the amount of information and range of topics we have covered. Maybe you are reading this because you are interested and curious to learn and be as well-informed as you can about health topics, or maybe you are desperately looking for relevant information that can help you or a loved one. No matter in which camp you find yourself, here is the summary and wrap up I can offer to bring all of what we have discussed down to a simple set of recommendations that anyone faced with a diagnosis of cancer, and fearful of, or skeptical about, or doubtful that the current standard of care in the cancer industry will help them, can understand and follow, knowing that none of these food choices, supplements, and therapies will bring them harm in any way, and that all will only do good, regardless how dire or hopeless their situation may appear to be.

  • Keep low insulin levels, as low as possible, by not having insulin-stimulating carbohydrates, and by keeping protein intake reasonably low. Focus on consuming natural, unprocessed fats as much as possible to supply the largest proportion of your daily calories. Consider a water or a tea-with-fat fast for a few days when it is suitable, or even as an intermittent fasting strategy on a daily basis. Consider also doing a green juice “fast” (only green vegetables) with added fat from blending in melted coconut oil or milk.
  • Drink alkaline water, always on an empty stomach, considering the day as divided between hydration periods, and feeding and digestion periods. The first hydration period is from the time you get up until you have your first meal. It is good to extend that period if you can to allow plenty of time for proper hydration after a long night of dehydration, with at least 1 to 1.5 litres over a period of at least 2 hours. Drink slowly to improve absorption and not pee everything out. Always allow 30 minutes without drinking before meals, and 2-3 hours after meals, depending on their size. The cycles of hydration and feeding during the day (for 3 meals) should be as follows: drink, wait, eat, wait, drink, wait, eat, wait, drink, wait, eat. For only two meals, which I recommend, then periods of drinking are extended and allow for even better hydration, cleaning of the blood, and better digestion.
  • Take iodine supplements with the co-factors and with food to maximise absorption and effectiveness. Start with 12.5 mg per day, and work your way up to 100 mg. Do this as quickly as your body allows you to. Take the iodine every weekday, and stop on weekends; five days on, two days off. (My wife and I take 50 mg per day.)
  • Take hot baths with sodium bicarbonate and magnesium chloride (or sulphate; 2 cups of each). Soak for 40 to 60 minutes. Do this three times per week. Always take your baths on an empty stomach, and drink at least one litre of alkaline water during the length of the bath. (Once per week is what I aim for as preventative medicine.)
  • Get B12 injections of methylcobalamin, 1 mg on a weekly basis. (My wife and I get a 5 mg injection once per month.)
  • Take proteolytic enzymes and Essiac tonic three times per day, always on an empty stomach, always at least 30 minutes before meals. (We take it once, first thing in the morning.)
  • Take turmeric and turmeric extract, as well as A-D-K2 with every meal or fatty snack, three times per day during recovery. (Once daily in normal circumstances.)
  • Take infrared or regular saunas, every day if possible, or even in the morning and at night if you have or decide to buy your own little sauna. I would definitely do this given how effective hyperthermia is at destroying cancer cells.
  • Eat Budwig cream.
  • Eat and drink greens.
  • Spend time outdoors, as much time as you can, moving, breathing fresh air, exposing your skin to the sunlight.
  • Keep low stress levels, as low as possible. Take tulsi, ashwagandha, and HTP-5 to keep stress hormone levels low, and mood high.
  • Take probiotics, chlorella and spirulina in the morning, and a colon cleansing supplement before bed.
  • Sleep well, long restful nights. Melatonin is very useful for this, and has many additional health benefits.

Cancer is very easy to prevent, but somewhat harder to dislodge once it has taken hold somewhere within the body. But no matter what type of cancer, how localised or generalised it is, or at what stage it finds itself, there is always hope. Hope of getting better and more comfortable, and hope for a complete recovery.

We have to remember that cancer cells are degenerate and weak. By making the environment as health-promoting to normally functioning cells, and simultaneously as hostile as possible to cancer cells, they will perish and be cleared out from the body as the waste that they are. The body heals itself, often miraculously quickly, when impediments are removed, and the elements needed for healing are provided. With all my heart, I hope this can help you and your loved ones.

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Intensive natural healing

It is always very difficult to find out what’s wrong, to find out what’s causing our health problems, to find out what is the reason for the stroke or the heart attack we just had, the diabetes or the cancer we were just diagnosed with. It is always very difficult as long as we think of the body in terms of a collection of separate parts pieced together; as long as we think that it is possible for the arteries supplying the brain or the heart to have a pathology that is not shared by every other organ and tissue; as long as we think that it is possible for the pancreas, the prostate or the mammary glands of the breasts to be defective in their function independently of every other cell throughout the body. The moment we see this, we recognise the absurdity of this point of view and the obviousness of the inter-relation of every cell to every other cell, tissue, organ and system.

There is only one whole body mind, and everything that happens to it affects everything else that takes place within it.

Looking at things from this new perspective, there are always only two possible alternatives: healthy or diseased, ranging from one to the other on a continuous scale with every possible point in between along the line. From this perspective, every medical intervention or treatment that is not intended to correct or remedy something acute—to fix a broken bone, to save someone whose kidneys or liver just failed, to stitch up a wound to prevent the loss of too much blood—but instead attempting to address a chronic disease condition—treating heart disease, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer’s, etc—is bound to fail.

The failure comes from the misunderstanding that stems from the misguided premise that views the body as a collection of parts working to specific ends more or less independently of one another. If we are to ever overcome our health problems and thrive throughout a long and happy life, it is this basic premise—this misguided and erroneous premise—that must be thrown out and replaced by the clear understanding that there is only one whole body mind, and that everything in it affects and is affected by everything else.

We are sometimes, maybe most often, faced with a major health issue that is acute because it is an end point to a degenerative disease condition that has been developing over decades throughout our entire life. Stroke and heart attack are good examples. Sometimes, maybe most often, it is these events that shake us up enough to move us into action, and if we have the luck to have been exposed to sensible information, we can have the chance to begin anew and change the course of the rest of our life, steering it towards recovery and optimal health.

When an event of this kind happens—when we have a stroke or heart attack—we must act fast to recover as quickly as possible and reduce as much as we can the possibility of having another one within weeks or months, something that could easily be fatal. The fact is that this is usually quite likely to happen, and it’s therefore important to take it to heart.

How can we take the most important and extreme measures to reverse this course of progressive degeneration and set ourselves on the course to recovery as quickly as we can? What would I suggest should be done with the greatest sense of urgency based on the understanding that it is our life that is at stake? What are the most important and effective ways to help the body heal and repair itself?

Cleanse, detoxify, heal the gut because everything that circulates in the body comes and goes through what circulates in the bloodstream, and everything that circulates in the bloodstream comes and goes through what enters the intestines. It is in the gut that everything about our health starts and ends, where all nutrients are absorbed and most metabolic wastes are discarded. This is why it must be the foundational focus of the healing process.

There is no better way to cleanse, detoxify and heal the gut than to drink fresh green vegetable juices while at the same time getting a series of colonics: the hydro-colon therapy cleans stuff out of the gut, the juice cleanses, alkalises and nourishes the blood and body. Doing these separately is very good. Doing them together is great. Give yourself two weeks—fourteen days—during which to do this. Every day drinking between two and three litres of fresh green vegetable juice, and every other day getting a colonic (on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, for example).

For the juice, you can make it or buy it, but it must be cold pressed in a slow masticating juicer, and it must be free of sugar, i.e., containing only green watery, fibrous and leafy vegetables. Any amount of sugar will fuel the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and yeasts like candida, and one of the most important aspects of this gut cleansing and healing is the elimination of the candida which undermines the function and health of our gut and our entire organism. In many modern cities there are small cold pressed juiceries where it is possible to buy very good quality all-organic green juice. Doing it at home is less expensive but requires you to do the work. You can also make some yourself and buy some as well (that’s what I tend to do).

In addition to the juicing and hydro-colon therapy, there are three kinds of supplements that should be taken: probiotics (Prescript-Assist is what I take), L-Carnosine (Paradise Herbs is what I take), and enzymes (I’ve used pHi-Zymes by Baseline Nutritionals and Heal-n-soothe by LivingWell). The probiotics replenish and heal the flora, carnosine helps heal the lining of the gut and glycated tissues, and the enzymes promote accelerated repair of damaged cells. They should all be taken three times a day, morning, noon and late afternoon, always on an empty stomach. Take each time one capsule of probiotics and two of L-Carnosine.

To avoid being too hungry, but also to ensure an important intake of the miraculously healing coconut oil, you should have a coconut milk based smoothie, pudding or ice cream: a small glass, two or three times per day. And to make sure you have a good intake of salt and minerals, you should either put unrefined salt in the green juice or eat cucumber and celery sticks with salt, as much as you feel like depending on taste, once mid-morning and once mid-to-late afternoon. Sometimes you may want to drink salty green juice, and sometimes you may prefer to eat salty, crunchy veggies. Just follow your inclination.

(See the work of Dr Norman Walker for more details about the importance of colonics and juicing.)

Enzymes are proteins with specialised functions. They are the things that do stuff in the body. Most of us have heard that enzymes are made in the pancreas and are needed for digestion because they break down the nutrients into their constituents: starches are broken down into glucose by amylase, fats are broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids by lipase, and various proteins are broken down into amino acids by various proteases. These building blocks of foods can then be absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream and carried all over the body to where they are needed. But enzymes also do practically everything else that needs doing, and, in particular, heal and repair damaged cells and tissues.

All raw foods contain enzymes, some more than others. Fresh juices which contain a high concentration of minerals and nutrients, also contain a high concentration of enzymes. Because the more enzymes are available, the better it is for the body to heal and repair itself. Hence, our strategy for recovering from this stroke, heart attack we just had, is to flood the body with enzymes. The fact is that in western countries, most people live on processed junk food that is not only totally devoid of minerals and micronutrients, but also completely dead and devoid of enzymes. If we don’t survive on processed junk food, then we typically hardly ever eat anything raw. Therefore, even if the food we eat is not as bad as processed fast food, it is still cooked, dead and devoid of enzymes.

Eating this way leads to two major problems. The first is that the pancreas is continuously manufacturing enzymes in a desperate attempt to cope with the digestion of cooked and dead food, and over time, like within a few decades, begins to get exhausted and eventually becomes unable to produce any enzymes. It typically also stops being able to produce insulin at the same time, just because it is simply exhausted. The second is that because all enzymes are used for digesting processed and cooked dead foods, there are hardly any enzymes available for anything else that needs doing, healing and repairing.

In our healing programme, to flood the body with enzymes, we—in addition to drinking all this juice loaded with enzymes of all sorts—will supplement with more enzymes. There is no upper limit to the amount we can take, and the more the better. It is really just a matter of what we can afford and are willing to take on a short, medium and long term basis. It is important to start slowly and increase gradually. This is to allow the body to adjust to the presence of more enzymes, but also because they will immediately start their cleanup of the body, breaking down scared and dead tissues that inevitably accumulate over time, as well as both benign and cancerous tumours. The breakdown products are toxic and need to be eliminated quickly. Hence part of the importance of the initial 14 day juice cleanse with intensive hydro-colon therapy.

The amazing thing about enzymes is that they know exactly what to do, what to break down, what to build up, what needs help repairing and what needs help healing. This can be considered a miracle of nature. But it is just life: the self-organised life of living organisms that has been evolving and having its means and methods refining themselves over the 4.5 billion years of evolution on the planet. Self-organised, synergistic and symbiotic co-dependent emergence and evolution. Miraculous and amazing, but from the perspective of an enzyme, a chloroplast or mitochondria, it is utterly simple, obvious and straight forward: adaptation for improved survival.

(See the work of Drs Cichoke and Gonzalez for more on enzyme therapy.)

Iodine is an element that is needed in every cell. According to statistics from the WHO, 97% of the world’s population is iodine deficient. And according to David Brownstein, M.D., a physician who has spent a good portion of his medical career studying iodine, testing for it, and treating his patients’s deficiencies of salt and iodine, the figure is probably closer to 98 or even 99%. In any case, this means that we can conclude that everyone should be supplementing with iodine to ensure the body an appropriate supply.

Iodine is found in the highest concentration in the thyroid gland, mammary glands, and then other glands of the body. For all glands, but especially for the thyroid and breasts, it is simply crucial. Brownstein has treated with total success a large number of women suffering from fibrous cysts or cancerous tumours in the breasts, and a large number of both men and women suffering from thyroid-related dysfunctions using basically only iodine supplementation and dietary modifications (including, most importantly, increased unrefined sea salt intake). He states his belief that most if not all cystic breast disease and cancers, and that most if not all thyroid problems, regardless of whether they are hypo or hyper thyroid dysfunctions, are caused by iodine deficiency, and are always corrected with appropriate supplementation.

One of the reasons why iodine deficiency is so problematic is that because it is so important in its role in every cell, and because it is part of the halogen family of elements (F, Cl, Br, I, At), it is replaced in the cells by other much more abundant but toxic halogens like fluorine, chlorine and bromine. All of these being common industrial chemicals far too abundant in our environment, water and food, and that find their way into the body, slipping into those slots in the cells intended for iodine. It is only by supplementing and providing the body with the adequate amounts it needs, that these other halogens can be gradually replaced by iodine and excreted from the body.

Brownstein recommends using Lugol’s solution, which is sodium iodine and iodide dissolved in water. It is generic and inexpensive, as it has been around for almost 200 years (first made in 1829), and it is a safe and effective way to replenish iodine stores. For most people (as it was for Brownstein himself and for me) it will be necessary to take 50–100 mg per day for about a year. It should be taken in water or juice on an empty stomach. I took it with water for many months before starting to put it in the green juice, in which the taste cannot be detected. I use a 15% solution (18.75 mg per drop) and took between two and four drops per day (37.5–75 mg; two drops at a time, once or twice per day).

After almost a year, I felt two days in a row an immediate surge of energy and light butterflies in the stomach, which I knew were caused by the iodine stimulating the thyroid because I had read about it. Therefore, reacting to it with such sensitivity, I knew that I had finally replenished, after all these months, the iodine stores. Now, I take one drop in my green juice, which sounds like an infinitesimally small amount, but it is important to maintain supplementation because iodine is needed every day by all cells and it is water soluble making it easily excreted with the urine. It has been estimated by iodine researchers that the body needs a minimum of 12.5 mg per day. Therefore it is best to take a little more than that; one drop of 15% solution which provides 18.75 mg. Iodine is of fundamental importance. Supplementation with it is essential, especially in a detoxification and healing programme.

(See Brownstein’s book for more on iodine, and The Guide to Supplementing with Iodine, for additional details about supplementation)

Magnesium and sodium bicarbonate support the cleansing, detoxification and—very importantly—alkalisation of the gut, blood, tissues and organs of the body. The easiest and most effective way to get these into the tissues is to have a 60 minute bath with one cup of nigari flakes and one cup of baking soda. You should do this every other day (Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday, for example) for the first two weeks. This will help pull out accumulated acid, chemical toxins and heavy metals. It is very pleasant and relaxing to lie in a hot bath for an hour reading a book, listening to music or just lying there quietly, adding hot water to maintain a comfortably hot temperature. It is also an essential part of the detoxification programme. After the first two weeks, you can reduce the number of baths to one to two per week.

(See the work of Drs Dean and Sircus for more on magnesium chloride and sodium bicarbonate.)

Eating for rejuvenation and optimal health is a matter of choosing between health and life or sickness and death. After these first two weeks, you will start to eat more solid foods, keeping the juice as the pillar of your new way of nourishing and taking care of the body. In fact, every day the focus of the first half of the day will be to hydrate, cleanse and alkalise by drinking green juice, one litre in two 500 ml portions, at around 9–10 and then 11:30–12:30. Lunch around 14 will be a green smoothie made of avocado and/or coconut milk, together with other green leafy veggies (kale, celery, cucumber, spinach, etc), and coconut water for the liquid part. You can add salt, black pepper and/or cayenne, other spices, superfood powders or extracts, making the smoothie as nutritious and tasty as you can using your resourcefulness to come up with new ideas and recipes.

Having a smoothie of this kind provide lots of enzymes and nutrients, essential oils and excellent fats, together with the naturally occurring fibres but because they are chopped up and blended smooth, they are very easy to digest and thus cause very little digestive stress; this is second to juicing which removes all the fibres for maximum absorption of nutrients and minimum work by the digestive organs.

In the late afternoon, have another green juice if it’s possible. You should drink one to two litres of alkaline water per day, whenever you feel like it. (You can either buy it, making sure the pH is above 8, or you can add alkalising drops to your high quality filtered water. I use Young pHorever’s PuripHy.) Remember that water and juice intake must be balanced with salt in order to hydrate well and not dilute the blood sodium levels and causing the kidneys to excrete more water. We want to drink lots and eat lots of salt in order to super-hydrate. For each litre of water/juice you need about half a teaspoon of salt.

Stop drinking around 18 or so, approximately 45 minutes before dinner: a big leafy green salad of your choice (baby greens, baby spinach, romaine, oak leaf, kale, mixed lettuces and greens) with some nuts and seeds, plenty of cold pressed organic olive oil or some kind of nut or seed butter dressing, and with this big salad, have a small amount of grass fed meat or wild/organically raised fish every other night (one day on, one day off).

That’s it. This is how you should eat for all the months during which you are recovering until you are in perfect health and perfect shape. You can eat like this for the rest of your life. This is more or less what I do. Some variations, will include creamed vegetable soups with coconut milk in the winter (cauliflower, brocoli, celery, spinach), cold soups like gazpacho in the summer, different kinds of salads (celery-fennel, red cabbage, white cabbage, chopped up cucumbers, tomatoes and red peppers in the summer, soaked nut and seed parsley salad, etc), and different lightly steamed vegetables like brocoli, romanesco, cauliflower and green beans. Of course, you are welcome to experiment in this way depending on the season and on personal taste, mood and circumstances.

Supplements that you should take as soon as you start eating, some with lunch and some with dinner, are the following.

With lunch:
(2) Liposomal Magnesium (L-Threonate; Mercola)
(2) Liposomal Vitamin C (Mercola)
(2) Krill oil (Mercola)
(1) Astaxanthin (Nutrex Bioastin 12 mg)
(2) Turmeric extract (Gaia Herbs)
(1) Cinnamon extract (Stop Aging Now)
(1) Tulsi extract (Source Naturals)
(1) Vitamin B12 (Thorne Research Bio-B12)
(2) A-D-K (DaVinci)
(2) Niacinamide (Thorne Research)
(2) Synergy7 (Stop Aging Now)
(2) Zinc (Source Naturals OptiZinc)
(1) Ubiquinol (Mercola)
(1) Huperzine A (Source Naturals)

With dinner:
(2) Liposomal Magnesium (L-Threonate; Mercola)
(2) Liposomal Vitamin C (Mercola)
(2) Turmeric extract (Gaia Herbs)
(1) Cinnamon extract (Stop Aging Now)
(1) Vitamin B12 (Thorne Research Bio-B12)
(1) A-D-K (DaVinci)
(2) Niacinamide (Thorne Research)
(2) Zinc (Source Naturals OptiZinc)
(1) Ubiquinol (Mercola)
(1) Iron bisglycinate (Thorne Research; depending on blood test results)

You will have noticed the obvious absence of some classes of food products that are eaten by most people most of the time: there are no sugars of any kind and no starches, both of which are known to increase the probability of cardiovascular events by their instantaneous triggering of more than 300 inflammatory pathways, all of which cause the blood to thicken and become more viscous; there are also no dairy products, which are highly acidifying and usually the cause of negative immune responses from mild to severe intolerance or allergies; and there are no commercial foods or drinks, all of which should simply be avoided by everyone for their lack of nutrition and chemical toxic loads. These are detrimental to our health in several ways and therefore have no place in a healing programme or in a diet for optimal health and longevity.

You will also have noticed that there is a strong emphasis on green juices and green vegetables, coconut fat from coconut milk, and just enough healthy and clean animal protein and fats to provide the body with everything it needs to thrive. It is perfectly fine to have berries either on their own or with coconut milk, as well as 80-85% organic chocolate once in a while (and not later in the day than about 15). You can have organic green tea in the morning (until about 12), but stop drinking coffee (if you’re a big coffee drinker, you have to do this gradually). The adrenal glands—the very important stress and sex hormone producing glands—in this day and age are almost always overstimulated from our busy and stressful lifestyles, and therefore usually dysfunctional to a greater or lesser extent. They also need to be healed and for this, they need a break.

You should continue the probiotics, L-carnosine, and enzymes as long as necessary to regain total health. You can continue indefinitely. You should continue the iodine supplementation with 50–100 mg per day for a year (might be anywhere between 8 to 12 months), after which you should reduce to one drop of 18.75 mg, and maintain this indefinitely. You should continue all supplements for as long as the healing process continues, and will benefit from taking them to the end of your days, reducing the quantity to once per day instead of twice (dropping the evening supplements with dinner), and remembering that there are only benefits from taking more depending on the circumstances in your life and your body’s needs. Of course there are plenty of other supplements that we can be of benefit, but the ones listed are those that I consider most important.

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